(i)The village was the highest unit of administration.
(ii)Existence of village assembly (Oha-na-eze/Umunna).
(iii)The village priest/diviner wielded great deal of religious and judicial powers.

(i) The village Assembly which exercise power on the societal administration reach their decisions through concensus. Thus democratic
(ii) The rulership of the village is by people’s consent as virtually all the grown ups are involved in the general administration
(iii) Rule of law holds sway in the Igbo administration as customs and traditions are daily adhered to
(iv) Membership of the decentralised organs in the village are open and duly followed against any act of malpractice

(i)National party of Nigeria (NDN) Alhaji shehu shagari

(ii)The unity party of Nigeria chief obafemi awolowo

(iii)The great Nigeria people party (GNPP) Waziri Ibrahim

(i)Since independence, political party have showed that they are loyal to the electorate during campaign and would serve their Interest of vote to power

(ii)They usually organize membership to reach all corners of the country

(iii)They have showed that their main objectives are to contests election,win and grow the country by all means



(i) Shortage of fund: The involvement of this organization in large scale operation affects its financial resources. This has created over time,shortage of funds.

(ii) Sovereignty of nation: The U.N.O cannot effectively enforce its decision because member states are not ready to surrender their sovereignty to the authority of the organization.

(iii) The veto power: Each of the five permanent members of the security council has a veto power. This could be used at times to satisfy their selfish interest at the expense of fulfilling the objectives of the organization.


(iv) Poverty: The inability of the united nation to effectively address the issue of poverty among member states.

(v) Difference in ideology: There difference in ideology, culture, politics and methods used in pursuing economic goal.This may negate the evolution of lasting peace in the world.


(i)The constitution is not a product of any constitutional conference; It was hurriedly prepared by the outgoing military government of General Abdulsalam Abubakar. Thus, many Nigerians continue to criticize it and see it more as a military constitution than the civilian constitution.

(ii)The constitution fails to define the roles of the traditional rulers in government. And The recognition of the Sharia courts contravenes the description of the country as being SECULAR.

(iii)The constitution is not clear on the functions and creation of the local governments; This makes local governments to be at the mercy of the other governments. Then, this issue of creation of more local governments has been a major source of conflict between states and federal governments. A classical example was Lagos vs Federal Government during Obasanjo’s administration.

(iv)The exclusive list is too bogus; It makes the federal government to be too dominant, while the states and local governments become unnecessarily dependent on the centre.

(v)Powers of the President are too much. This makes some presidents to abuse the office and disregard the powers of the other organs.


Political socialization is the process of acquisition and transmission of political knowledge and value by individuals from one generation to another.

(i) It involves the transmission of values and beliefs of the political culture by one generation to the next.
(ii) Political Culture is maintained and changed through political socialisation. The values, beliefs and orientations towards political objects and actions are transmitted as well as changed by this process.
(iii) Political Socialisation is a lifelong learning process but its pace and role keeps on changing from time to time. The process goes on continuously throughout the life of the individual.
(iv) Political Socialisation provides the necessary knowledge and incentive for individual’s participation in politics. Politically socialised individuals come forward to accept different roles in the political system.
(v) In nature, Political Socialisation is similar to, in fact, a part of the process of socialisation which is always at work in every society.
(vi) Finally, Political Socialisation is an extremely important process by which individuals become involved in the activities of the political system. The nature and level of political participation of the individuals depend to a large extent upon the nature and efficiency of the process of political socialisation.


(i)Governments Can be More Responsive to Citizens; The closer a government entity is to its citizens, the more likely it is the respond to the needs of citizens. States are more likely to listen to citizen needs, and respond to them, than the national government would be.

(ii)Federalism improves efficiency; Even though we may think of hundreds of governments as inefficient, governing the entire nation from one central location would be even worse. Imagine the bureaucracy, red tape, delays, and confusion if every government activity in every community in the nation—police, schools, roads, fire departments, garbage collections, sewage disposal, street lighting.

(iii)A Better Understanding; The central government has no true way to understand what issues and changes need to be made in every area of the country. This is why federalism is such a great advantage. The smaller branches of the local governments are right in the middle of the local society. They are better suited to deal with the true things that need to be changed.

(iv)Federalism helps manage conflict;
Permitting states and communities to pursue their own policies reduces the pressures that would build up at the national level if the national government had to decide everything. Federalism permits citizens to decide many things at the state and local levels of government and avoid battling over single national policies to be applied uniformly throughout the land.

(v)Federalism embraces diversity
Federalism, a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government, permits diversity and accommodates the differences between people and regions to create stronger components, which make a stronger nation.

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